The ancient civilised history of Rajasthan goes back to the great floods 10,000 years ago when in the present day districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar, along with other areas of jaipur district bordering south Haryana, which formed the part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta along with districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari in Haryana, that Vedic seers started composing Vedic scriptures, which form part of Sanatan Dharma, the base of present day Hinduism. Revered Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers formed the then Brahmavarta state. Drishadwati river is identified as the Vedic Drishadwati by Bhargava.Parts of Rajasthan may have been occupied by the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappans). Excavations at Kalibanga in northern Rajasthan around 1998 revealed the existence of human settlements of Harappan times on the banks of a river that dried up later, which some people believe to be the Saraswati, archaeologists hope the Saraswati will unlock mysteries of the past. Rajasthan’s geographic position in India has caused it to be affected by the expansionist efforts of various empires
In Maharana Pratap’s army the main commanders were Gwalior’s Ram Singh Tanvar (with all his sons), Krishandas Churawat, Ramdas Rathore Jhala, Mansingh Rawat, Purohit Gopinath, Shankardas, Charan Jaisa, Purohit Jagannath and Keshav. His army also included Afghans led by Hakim Khan Sur and a small contingent of 400-500 Bhil tribals headed by Rao Poonja fighting alongside him. He was also accompanied by Rao Chandra Sen of Marwar and his teacher Acharya Raghvendra. According to contemporary Mughal historians, Maharana’s army had 3000 soldiers. According to Dr. Sharma, Maharana had 3,000 horseborne soldiers, 2,000 infantry soldiers, 100 elephants and 100 spearmen and some other soldiers. Besides these, there was an army of 400-500 Bheel soldiers also, along with Afghans.
In 1576, Akbar deputed Man Singh I and Asaf Khan I to lead a force against Maharana Pratap.The Rana advanced with a force numbering almost half the Mughal numbers and took a position near Haldighati which was at the entrance of a defile. In Pratap’s army the main commanders were Gwalior’s Ram Shah Tanwar and his three sons,Rawat Krishnadasji Chundawat, Maan Singhji Jhala and Chandrasenji Rathore of Marwar. His army also included Afghans led by Hakim Khan Sur and a small contingent of Bhil tribals headed by Rao Poonjaji fighting alongside him. Anticipating the mughal attack, the Rana had also devastated the entire region up to Chittor to prevent the Mughal forces access to food and fodder.he Mughals were then guided by Pratap’s brother Shakti Singh that what was the way they could face Pratap in open and with minimum casualties.
The Battle of Haldighati was fought on 18 June 1576 for around 4 hours. It was primarily fought in the traditional manner between cavalry and elephants since the Mughals found it difficult to transport artillery over the rough terrain. In a traditional fight, the Rajputs were at an advantage; their impetuous attack led to a crumbling of the Mughal left and right wings and put pressure on the center until reserves, but a rumor of Akbar’s arrival turned the tide, and resulted in a Rajput retreat. The heat, and fear of ambush in the hills, resulted in the Mughals deciding not to pursue the Rajputs into the hills. Thus this battle failed to break the existing stalemate. After the battle Akbar captured many Rajput forts including the Mewarian capital Udaipur This fight can be viewed as an assertion of local independence arising from local and regional patriotism.